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  2. Taqavi

    Imamat

    What is the reason for the superiority of the Imams over the previous prophets? In the beginning, it is stated that the Prophet (s) is superior to all human beings and even the previous prophets of God. The Prophet himself said: "God has given me superiority over all His prophets and messengers."[1] It is also narrated from Imam Sadiq (a) that he said: "God, the Exalted, has composed His Greatest Name of seventy-three letters, and of those letters He gave two letters to Jesus, and with those two letters Jesus raised the dead, healed the blind from birth, and cured leprosy. He gave four letters to Moses, eight letters to Abraham, fifteen letters to Noah, and twenty-five letters to Adam, but He taught seventy-two letters of those letters to the Messenger of God Muhammad (s) and did not teach one letter to anyone."[2] With reference to this introduction, it is stated in numerous narrations that everything that God bestowed upon His Prophet (s) was later given to his successors, except for prophethood, and the infallible Imams (a) have all the virtues of the Prophet except that they are not prophets. The noble Prophet (s) himself addressed Imam Ali (a), saying: "You see what I see, and you hear what I hear, except that you are not a prophet."[3] Imam Hassan (a) says: "No one from the predecessors and no one from the future has surpassed Imam Ali (a) in any virtue"[4] It is important to note that the position of Imamate is higher than the position of prophethood[5] and the Imams, although they were not prophets, but they had the position of Imamate. Imam Sadiq (a) said: "The Prophet (s) was both an Imam and a prophet, but Ali (a) was an Imam but not a prophet."[6] Therefore, just as the noble Prophet Muhammad (s) is superior to all other prophets, the infallible Imams (s) are also superior to all prophets except the last Prophet (s), and whatever God had given to His previous prophets, has been inherited by the infallible Imams. Imam Sadiq (a) says: "Every prophet who has inherited knowledge or otherwise, it has ultimately reached the Imams (a)."[7] In conclusion, mentioning this narration is very appropriate: Sa'asa'a bin Sohan entered the Commander of the Faithful when he had been struck and said: "O Commander of the Faithful, are you superior, or Adam, father of mankind?" Imam Ali (a) replied: "It is not good for a person to boast of himself, God said to Adam: "'O Adam, dwell with your wife in paradise..."[8] and God made many things lawful for me that I did not approach and abstained from. Then he asked: Are you superior, or Noah? Imam Ali (a) replied: Noah cursed his people, and I did not curse my oppressors; Noah's son was an infidel, but my two sons are the masters of the youth of paradise. He asked: Are you superior, or Moses? He replied: God sent Moses to Pharaoh, and he said: "I fear they will deny me,"[9] until God said, "Do not fear, for no prophet in My presence shall fear.[10]" And Moses said, "My Lord, I have killed a soul, so I fear they will kill me."[11] But I did not fear when the Prophet of God (s) sent me to recite Surah Bara'at to Quraysh during the Hajj season, despite the fact that I had killed many of their leaders, yet I went to them, recited the Surah, and did not fear them. He asked: Are you superior to Jesus, son of Mary? He replied: Jesus' mother was in Jerusalem, when the time of her delivery came, she heard a voice saying: Go out, this house is a place of worship, not a place of childbirth. But my mother, Fatima bint Asad, when her time of delivery was near, she was by the Ka'ba, the wall of the Ka'ba split, and a voice told her to enter. So she entered the Ka'ba and I was born there, and this virtue has not been for anyone, neither before me nor after me.[12] According to the stated contents, it is clear evident that the infallible Imams (a) had a higher position than all past prophets. [1] . Al-Burhan fi Tafsir al-Quran; Al-Bahrani, Al-Sayyid Hashim Vol: 1 P: 205. [2] . Al-Kafi Vol: 1 Page: 230 Hadith 2. [3] . Sayyid Razi, Nahj al-Balagha, Khutba 192 (Qasida). [4] . Al-Kafi Vol: 1 Page: 457." "قَدْ قُبِضَ فِي هَذِهِ اللَّيْلَةِ رَجُلٌ مَا سَبَقَهُ الْأَوَّلُونَ وَ لَا يُدْرِكُهُ الْآخِرُونَ [5] . For more information refer to " Is the position of imamate higher than the position of prophethood and risalat?". [6] . Al-Ilal Al-Shara’i, Sheikh Saduq, vol. 1, p. 175. [7] . Al-Kafi Vol: 2 Page: 232 [8] . Al-Baqarah: 35 " "يا آدم اسكن أنت وزوجك الجنة [9] . Al-Shu'ara: 12 " "إني أخاف أن يكذبون [10] . Al-Naml: 10 " "لا تخف إني لا يخاف لدي المرسلون [11] . Al-Qasas: 33 " "رب إني قتلت منهم نفسا فأخاف أن يقتلون [12] . Al-Lameat al-Bayda; Al-Tabrizi Al-Ansari, vol. 1, p. 220.
  3. Taqavi

    Imamat

    How many Imams are there after the Prophet Muhammad (s), and who are they? According to the narrations from the Prophet Muhammad (s), which are present in both the Sunni and the Shia sources, there are twelve Imams after the Prophet. One narration states that "there will be twelve guardians for this nation, and whoever adheres to them will not suffer harm, all of whom are from the Quraysh tribe".[1] Ibn Athir notes that even in the Torah that, there is a statement implying that God blessed Abraham with the existence of Ishmael, promising to make him grow, to multiply his progeny, and to place twelve magnificent individuals among his descendants. According to existing narrations, this Torah statement refers to the twelve Shia Imams.[2] Juwayni has narrated that the Prophet (s) said his successors would be twelve in number, with the first being his brother and the last being his son. When asked who his brother was, he named Ali ibn Abi Talib (a), and when asked about his son, he referred to Mahdi (may God hasten his noble advent).[3] Additionally, it is mentioned that the Prophet (s) proclaimed, “Myself and Ali, Hassan, Husayn, and nine of Husayn's sons are pure and infallible.”[4] In a narration from Shia sources, the Prophet (s) mentions that after him will come twelve Imams, starting with Ali, followed by Hassan, Husayn, Ali ibn Husayn, Muhammad ibn Ali, Jafar ibn Muhammad, Musa ibn Jafar, Ali ibn Musa, Muhammad ibn Ali, Ali ibn Muhammad, Hassan ibn Ali, and ending with Al-Hujjat ibn al-Hassan.[5] Therefore, based on this, the twelve Imams following the Prophet Muhammad (s) are twelve individuals, starting with the commander of faithful, Ali ibn Abi Talib (a), followed by the two grandsons of the Prophet (s), and subsequently the nine descendants of Imam Husayn (a), whose names have been mentioned in these narrations. [1] . Kanz al-Ummal; Al-Muttaqi al-Hindi, Vol: 12, P: 33. [2] . Al-Bidayah wa al-Nihayah; Ibn Kathir,P: 179, 178. [3] . Faraid al-Simtain Mu'allif; al-Hamuyi al-Juwayni, Ibrahim; vol: 2 p: 312. [4] . ibid, p: 313. [5] . Sadooq; Kamal al-Din, vol: 1, pp: 254-253 / Khazaz Razi; Kifayah al-Athar, pp: 53-55.
  4. Taqavi

    Imamat

    The Imamate(leadership) after the Prophet continued through whom? God chose Islam as the complete religion and through it, finalized the argument for all until the Day of Judgment, setting the perfection and completion of this religion in the appointment of the succession of Imamate after the Messenger of God (s). When the Messenger of God (s) concluded this duty at Ghadir Khumm, God declared, "Today I have perfected your religion for you, completed My favor upon you, and have chosen for you Islam as your religion".[1] According to narrations found in Sunni books, from the very first day of his mission, the Prophet (s) introduced his successor. He addressed his relatives by asking, "Who will assist me and be my brother and successor?" The only person who responded positively to the Messenger of God (s) was Imam Ali (a), and the Prophet (s) stated, "Be informed that Ali is my brother and successor; obey him".[2] After this event, throughout his prophethood, the Messenger of God (s) introduced Ali (a) on various occasions as his successor, one of which is the Hadith of Position where he said, "O Ali, are you not content to be to me like Aaron was to Moses, except that there will be no prophet after me?".[3] When some malicious individuals wanted to speak ill of Imam Ali (a) in front of the Messenger of God (s), he replied, "Ali is from me and I am from Ali, and he is your Wali (guardian) after me".[4] In another narration, it is stated that the Prophet (s) was commanded to designate Imam Ali (a) as his successor, but the Messenger of God (s) refrained from declaring it due to the people still being close to the ignorance of their past until God revealed on the day of Ghadir the verse "O Messenger, deliver what has been sent down to you from your Lord".[5] At that moment, the Prophet publicly proclaimed the Imamate of Ali (a). Based on these facts, it should be said that the Messenger of God (s) introduced Ali (a) as his successor from the beginning of his mission and, at the end of his life, publicly announced the divine commandment of Imam Ali's succession at Ghadir Khumm.[6] Therefore, the initiator of Imamate after the Prophet was Imam Ali (a). [1] . Al-Ma’idah: 3, " "الْيَوْمَ أَكْمَلْتُ لَكُمْ دِينَكُمْ وَأَتْمَمْتُ عَلَيْكُمْ نِعْمَتِي وَرَضِيتُ لَكُمُ الْإِسْلَامَ دِينًا [2] . Kanz al-Ummal; Al-Muttaqi al-Hindi, Vol: 13, P: 133. [3] . Musannaf Ibn Abi Shaybah; Ibn Abi Shaybah, Abu Bakr, Vol: 6, P: 366. [4] . Musnad Ahmad; Ahmad ibn Hanbal, Vol: 38, P: 117. [5] . Shawahid al-Tanzil li Qawa'id al-Tafdil; Al-Hakim al-Haskani, Vol: 1, P: 256. [6] . Usd al-Ghaba; Ibn al-Athir, Izz al-Din, Vol: 3, P: 35.
  5. Taqavi

    Imamat

    Is Imamat considered one the fundamentals of religion (Usūl al‑Din) or one of the branches of religion (Furū al-Din)? Why? Every sect and religion are founded on a set of principles and characteristics that adherence to them is considered a criterion for belonging to that religion or sect, and denying these principles can lead to exiting the domain of that religion or sect. In Shia, the principles of the religion consist of five fundamental tenets: Tawhid (Oneness of God), Adl (Justice of God), Nubuwwah (Prophethood), Imamat (Leadership), and Ma'ad (Day of Resurrection). Therefore, from the perspective of Shia scholars, Imamat counts as one of the principles of religion, which consider its divinity as a prophethood.[1] This is while in Sunni idia, Imamat is considered a part of the branches of religion and is not seen as a divine office.[2] However, some Sunni scholars, like Qadi Baydawi in his book "Minhaj" and its commentators, believe that this issue is among the greatest matters of the principles of religion and consider those opposing it as disbelievers.[3] Shia scholars have said about this: "Imamat is one of the principles of religion, not one of the branches of religion, which is related to obligatory actions. Because the Imamate is the religious and worldly leadership of the public, according to the command of God and His Prophet, and in this respect, it is like prophethood. In that case, it is not correct to consider it as one of the practical branches of religion.[4] "The proof of this claim is the narration of the Prophet Muhammad (s) that has been narrated by both Shia and Sunni, which says: "Whoever dies without knowing the Imam of his time dies the death of ignorance".[5] Because a person who is ignorant of a secondary issue, even if it is one of the obligations, his death is not the time of ignorance, and not knowing it does not make him a non-Muslim. [1] . Aṣl al-Shīʿa wa Usūluhā; Kāshif al-Ghiṭā, vol 1, pp 141-154 / Biḥār al-Anwār; al-‘Allāmah al-Majlisī, vol 69, p 132 / Muntahā al-Maṭlab; al-‘Allāmah al-Hillī; vol 1, p 522 / Al-Ḥadā'iq al-Nāḍirah fī Aḥkām al-‘Itrah al-Ṭāhirah; al-Baḥrānī; vol 18, p 153. [2] . Sharḥ al-Mawāqif; Iji - Mir Sayyid Sharif, vol: 8, p: 344 / Tabayyin Dharurat Wujūd Imām Ba'd al-Payambar (S); Rajab Akbarzādeh, Faslnāmeh Āfāq Dīn, sāl 1, shomāreh 3, zemestān 1389, safha 54. [3] . Ḥadīqat al-Shīʿah ,Muqaddas Ardabīlī, p; 27. [4] . Al-Hashiyah ‘ala al-Hayat al-Sharh al-Jadid li al-Tajrid; Muqaddas Ardabili, vol; 1, p; 14 p;178. [5] . Majlisi, Bihar al-anwar, vol.23, p.76-95; Mas'udi, Ithbat al-wasiyya, vol.1, p.112-115; Hakim al-Nishaburi, al-Mustadrak, vol.1, p.150,204; Ibn Hanbal, Musnad, vol.12, p.277, vol.13, p.188; Ibn Abi l-Hadid, Sharh nahj al-balagha, vol.9, p.125
  6. Taqavi

    Imamat

    Is the existence of an imam necessary? Before anything else, it is important to keep in mind that the necessity of the existence of an Imam means the necessity of the existence of an infallible person as a divine leader, which includes all the Prophets, their successors, and Ahl al-Bayt. Therefore, all the arguments that have been presented for the necessity of the existence of prophets and their successors are also valid in this discussion. Imamate is the continuation of the path of prophecy, and just as God sends prophets who have the status of revelation and the status of infallibility to guide mankind, it is necessary to appoint infallible successors after the death of the prophets to guide the people. Certainly, without it, this goal will remain incomplete. Therefore, scholars have put forward some arguments to prove the necessity of the Imam's existence; some of them are mentioned: 1. The Holy Qur'an has determined the alignment and specialization of each group on the Day of Judgment to their Imam: the day of calling all people to their Imam[1]. According to this verse, it is necessary for every person in this world to have an imam so that he will be called with him on the Day of Judgment. Or in the verse of "'uwli al'amr": “O believers! Obey Allah and obey the Messenger and those in authority among you.”[2] Imam Baqir (a) says in the interpretation of this verse: We are the only ones who are the »'uwli al'amr«, because all the believers have been ordered to obey us (Ahl al-Bayt) until the Day of Resurrection.[3] So in the beginning there is a need for the presence of Imams, after that people obey them.[4] Al-Taftazani refers to this reason and says that the obedience to 'uwli al'amr necessitates its realization.[5] 2. Besides the Quranic evidence, the necessity of Imamate can also be derived from certain narrations: A. One of the narrative proofs for the necessity of an Imam is the Hadith al-Thaqalayn. The Prophet Muhammad (s) said: “I am leaving behind, two precious things among you: The Book of Allah and my progeny - my Ahl al-Bayt - so hold fast to them so you will not be led astray”[6]. The Prophet (s) stated the condition of not going astray as adherence to the Quran and his progeny; thus, considering the generality of this statement, the necessity of an Imam at all times will be required; as the obligation of holding fast, without the presence of the progeny, would be void. B. Another narrative reason for the necessity of an Imam is the famous hadith “If there were not the Hujjah, then the earth would swallow its inhabitants.” Imam Sadiq (a) said in a Hadith: “If the earth remains without an Imam for a day, it will sink.” [7] Based on these types of narrations, the Imam is the Hujjah of God on Earth and the safety of the people on Earth, and if he were absent for a moment, the Earth would destroy its inhabitants. C. The Prophet (s) said: “He who dies without knowing the Imam of his time dies the death of ignorance.”[8] Some Muslim theologians have interpreted this Hadith as evidence of the necessity of Imamate because, according to this Hadith, knowing the Imam at all times is a legal obligation and necessitates the perpetual existence of an Imam.[9] 3. The practicing community’s tradition: Some theologians have considered the tradition of Muslims as evidence of the necessity of the existence of an Imam because from the tradition of Muslims, it can be understood that the necessity of an Imam is considered an assured and indisputable matter. The difference between Shia and Sunni has actually been over the issue of Imamate, not its principle.[10] Abu Ali and Abu Hashim al-Jubba’i and others have referred to the consensus of companions on the necessity of Imamate.[11] 4. The Rule of Grace (Lutf), one of the most important rational arguments for the necessity of an Imam, has been elaborately discussed by Shia scholars[12]; just as God’s grace and wisdom require providing means of growth and existential development of humans by sending prophets and means of attaining true happiness with a plan and law, the same grace and wisdom necessitate that, after the Prophet(s), leaders appointed by God through his Prophet be established for the correct interpretation and clarification of divine laws and guidance of humans, keeping them from misguidance and leading them to truth. Theologians such as Ibn Maytham Bahrani, Sadid al-Din Himsi, Nasir al-Din al-Tusi, and others have given various explanations for the Imamate and its obligation, considering the aforementioned principle.[13] Consequently, Twelver Shia has stated two types of objectives for the existence of an Imam. The first category includes the practical goals and benefits that Sunnis have also mentioned. Accordingly, the objectives of Imamate stated are the preservation of the social system of Muslims, establishing social justice, implementing Islamic rulings, especially collective laws, and executing religious penalties. However, another realm encompasses the most important goals of Imamate; they include fulfilling the religion, its preservation, and its explication. [1] . Al-Isra: 71, " "يَوْمَ نَدْعُو كُلَّ أُنَاسٍ بِإِمَامِهِمْ [2] . Al-Nisa: 59, " "يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا أَطِيعُوا اللَّهَ وَأَطِيعُوا الرَّسُولَ وَأُولِي الْأَمْرِ مِنْكُمْ [3] . Usul Kafi/Kulaini/vol. 1/p. 276 [4] . Tusi, Talkhis al-muhassal, p.407 [5] . Taftazani, Sharh al-maqasid, vol.5, p.239 [6] . Sheikh Saduq, Muhammad bin Ali, Kamal al-Din wa Tamam al-Nimah, vol. 1, p. 279 [7] . Usul Kafi/Kulaini/vol. 1/p. 179 [8] . Majlisi, Bihar al-anwar, vol.23, p.76-95; Mas'udi, Ithbat al-wasiyya, vol.1, p.112-115; Hakim al-Nishaburi, al-Mustadrak, vol.1, p.150,204; Ibn Hanbal, Musnad, vol.12, p.277, vol.13, p.188; Ibn Abi l-Hadid, Sharh nahj al-balagha, vol.9, p.125 [9] . Taftazani, Sharh al-maqasid, vol.5, p.239; Abu Hanifa, Sharh al-fiqh al-akbar, p.179; Tusi, Talkhis al-muhassal, p.407 [10] . Sayyid al-Sharif, Sharh al-mawaqif, vol.8, p.346; Taftazani, Sharh al-'aqa'id al-nasafiyya, p.110; Amidi, Ghayat al-maram, p.364; Shahristani, Nihaya al-aqdam, p.479 [11] . Qadi 'Abd al-Jabbar, al-Mughni, vol.1, p.47 [12] . Albab Alhadiy Eashr, p. 10; Al-Shafi fi Al-Imamate, vol. 1, p. 47; Al-Aietimad fi Sharh Wajib Al-Aietiqad, p. 8; Al-Badayt Al-Maearif Al-Iilahiyt fi Sharh Eaqayid Al-Iimamiyt, vol. 2, p. 22; Dalai al-Saddeq, vol. 4, p. 253; Al-Maram rules in the science of al-kalam, p. 175; Kashf al-Murad in the description of abstraction of belief, p. 362. Lectures on theology, p. 346: Al-Naqt al-Itqadiyyah, p. 45; Al-Wa'am Al-Ilahiyya, p. 326; Al-Munqidh Man al-Taqlid, p. 297; Kashf al-Morad, Ayatollah Sobhani's commentary, p. 106; Kefayat al-Mohadin, vol. 1, p. 505. [13] . Bahrani, Qawa'id al-maram, p.175; Halabi, Taqrib al-ma'arif, p.95; Humsi, al-Munqidh, vol.2, p.240; Hilli, Kashf al-murad, p.490; Fadil al-Miqdad, Irshad al-talibin, p.328
  7. Taqavi

    Imamat

    Does the Holy Prophet (s) have the position of Imamate? Paying attention to two points will clarify the answer to this question: 1. The Prophet has a higher status than all the prophets and angels. The prophet himself states: “Allah Almighty has favored His prophets over the angels who are close to Him, and He has favored me over all prophets.”[1] In another narration, the Commander of the Faithful (a) says: "...God has not given any prophets any status or virtue except that he collected it for Muhammad (s), and added to the number of those virtues for Muhammad"[2]. And in another narration, Imam Sadiq (a) says: "Indeed, God Almighty did not grant anything to the prophets, except that He granted it to Muhammad (s)". [3] Therefore, all the positions and virtues of prophets have been granted to the holy Prophet, and he has a position higher than all the prophets and angels, so when in the Qur'an, the position of Imamate has given to prophet Abraham (When his Lord tested Abraham's faith, by His words and he fulfilled them, He said, "I am appointing you Imam of mankind.)[4] If this great position is confirmed for Abraham, it will be for the Prophet as a priority. 2. It is specified in some hadiths the Imamate of the Prophet of Islam, such as the narration of Imam Sadiq (a): "The Holy Prophet (s) was both an imam and a prophet, but Ali (a) was an imam, not a prophet".[5] Or imam Ali (a) himself states about the Imamate of the Holy Prophet (s): " O people! Indeed, the Messenger of God is the Imam of all, during his life and after his death".[6] Or in Nahj al-Balagha, imam Ali (a) states: "The prophet is the imam of the pious"[7]. According to these two points, it becomes clear that the position of Imamate, which is a great position, has been constant for the Prophet (s) as well as the position of prophethood and risalat. [1] . Ayoun Akhbar al-Reza Vol. 1 p. 262- Kamal al-Din and Tamma Al-Naimah Vol. 1 p. 254. « إن الله تعالى فضل أنبياءه المرسلين على الملائكة المقربين وفضلني على جميع النبيين والمرسلين» [2] . Al-Ihtjaj / Tabarsi / Volume 1 / Page 211. «...مَا أَعْطَى اللَّهُ نَبِيّاً دَرَجَةً وَ لَا مُرْسَلًا فَضِيلَةً إِلَّا وَ قَدْ جَمَعَهَا لِمُحَمَّدٍ ص وَ زَادَ مُحَمَّداً عَلَى الْأَنْبِيَاءِ أَضْعَافاً مُضَاعَفَة...» [3] . Usul Kafi/Kulaini/vol. 1/p. 225." "اِنَّ اللّٰهَ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ لَمْ يُعْطِ الْأَنْبِيٰاءَ شَيْئاً الاّٰ وَ قَدْ أَعْطٰاهُ مُحَمَّدا [4] . Al-Baqarah: 124." "وَ إِذِ ابْتَلى‏ إِبْراهيمَ رَبُّهُ بِكَلِماتٍ فَأَتَمَّهُنَّ قالَ إِنِّي جاعِلُكَ لِلنَّاسِ إِماماً [5] . Al-Ilal Al-Shara’i, Sheikh Saduq, vol. 1, p. 175." فَالنَّبِيُّ ص إِمَامٌ وَ نَبِيٌّ وَ عَلِيٌّ (ع) إِمَامٌ لَيْسَ بِنَبِيٍّ وَ لَا "رَسُول‏ [6] . Usul Kafi/Kulaini/vol. 1/p. 225. "أَيُّهَا النّٰاسُ انَّ رَسُولَ اللّٰهِ(ص) امٰامٌ حَيّاً وَ مَيِّتاً" [7] . Nahj al-Balagha, Fayd al-Islam, Sermon 93, p. 279. " "فَهُوَ امٰامُ مَنِ اتَّقى
  8. Taqavi

    Imamat

    Is the position of imamate higher than the position of prophethood and risalat? First, we explain the concept of the three words of prophethood, risalate and imamate to clarify the superiority of imamate over risalat and prophecy. 1- The prophethood: prophet or nabi ((نبی is an Arabic word that means a messenger, so a prophet is a bearer of great news or a person who informs about it[1], and in the term, a prophet is someone who gives news from God without an intermediary[2] (according to this, prophecy means news Giving without an intermediary from God.) The Qur'an says: "فَبَعَثَ اللهُ النَّبیّینَ مُبَشّرینَ و مُنْذرین"[3], God raised the prophets as bearers of good news and warnings. As a result, it can be said: the position of prophethood means receiving revelation from God, and a "prophet" is someone to whom revelation is revealed and what he receives through revelation, he gives it to people if they ask him.[4] 2- The risalat (prophetic mission): Rasul (رسول) is an Arabic word means a messenger, and sometimes a word and a message that is sent is called a messenger (rasul), just as a person who carries a message is also called a messenger (rasul).[5] And the messenger in the term refers to prophets who, in addition to receiving revelations and giving news from God, have the responsibility of communicating a divine mission from God and to convey that mission to the people; The Qur'an says: " وَأَطِيعُوا اللَّهَ وَأَطِيعُوا الرَّسُولَ فَإِنْ تَوَلَّيْتُمْ فَإِنَّمَا عَلَى رَسُولِنَا الْبَلَاغُ الْمُبِينُ "[6] “ Obey Allah and obey the Messenger. But, if you turn away, Our Messenger's duty is only to deliver the Clear Message.” Therefore, messengers are also prophets because they are recipients of divine revelation and bearers of news. As a result, the position of the risalat means the transmission of revelation, propagation and promotion of divine orders and training the people through education and awareness, so the messenger is the one who is obliged to invite people to God and convey his command with effort. [7] 3- The Imamate: Imam is an Arabic word that means leader and master. [8]In al- Majmae al-Bahrayn also, imam means the leader and the one who is followed by people.[9] Although, among the Shiites, Imam is the successor of the Holy Prophet.[10] According to the Qur'an, the position of Imamate is different from prophethood and risalat, and it is accompanied by wider powers and possessions in the direction of managing and leading the society and leading the people. As a result, the position of Imamate means the leadership of the people. In fact, an imam is a person who, by forming a divine government and obtaining the necessary powers, tries to implement God's decrees practically, and even if he cannot formally form a government, he tries to implement the decrees as much as he can. In other words, the duty of the imam is to carry out divine orders, while the duty of the messenger is to convey these orders. Some prophets, such as Abraham and the Prophet Muhammad (s), had all three positions, receiving revelations and preaching divine commands, and they tried to form the government and execute the decrees, and they trained the people. Therefore, it can be said; Imamate is the position of all-round leadership, physical, spiritual, outward and inward and imam is the head of government, community leader, religious leader, moral teacher and inner leader. [11] According to the stated content, the superiority of the position of Imamate compared to the position of Risalat and Prophethood was clarified. In any case, the best reason for the superiority of the position of Imamate is the Word of God in the Qur'an, where it says: " وَ إِذِ ابْتَلى‏ إِبْراهيمَ رَبُّهُ بِكَلِماتٍ فَأَتَمَّهُنَّ قالَ إِنِّي جاعِلُكَ لِلنَّاسِ إِماماً قالَ وَ مِنْ ذُرِّيَّتي‏ قالَ لا يَنالُ عَهْدِي الظَّالِمينَ،"[12] When his Lord tested Abraham's faith, by His words and he fulfilled them, He said, "I am appointing you Imam of mankind." Abraham asked, "Will this imamate also continue through my descendants?" The Lord replied, " My covenant includeth not wrong-doers." (And only those of your children who are pure and innocent are worthy of this position) The verse proves the position of Imamate for Abraham - peace be upon him - after heavy trials and tests, and Abraham's success in all of them. According to Imam Sadiq(a)'s narration, prophet Abraham reached the position of Imamate after these positions: (1) the position of servitude; (2) the position of prophethood; (3)- the position of Risalat; (4) the position of friendship; (5) and at last the position of Imamate.[13]After reaching this position, he asked God whether this position is just for him or his descendants will also have this position. God says: This position is reserved for the pure and innocent men. Therefore, those who have committed wrongdoing and sin even once in their entire life, do not deserve this divine position; And what sin is higher than polytheism? Therefore, prophet Abraham had all these attributes and then he became an imam. This article clearly conveys the superiority of the position of Imamate over the prophethood and the risalat. [1] . Ibn Manzur, Lisan al-Arab, vol. 1, p. 162. [2] . Allama Hilli, Albab Alhadi Eashra, p. 8. « النّبيّ (ص) هو الإنسان المخبر عن اللّه تعالى بغير واسطة أحد من البشر» [3] . Al-Baqarah: 213. [4] . Tafsir Namuna, Makarem Shirazi, Nasser, vol: 1 p: 440. [5] . Ragheb Isfahani, Hussein bin Muhammad, Mofardat Ragheb, Dar Al-Qalam, vol. 1, p. 353. [6] . Al-Taghabun: 12. [7] . Tafsir Namuna, Makarem Shirazi, Nasser, vol: 1 p: 440. [8] . Ibn Manzur, Lisan al-Arab, vol: 12, p: 24. [9] . Fakhruddin Torihi; al- Majmae al-Bahrayn, vol: 6, p: 10. [10] . For more explanation about the meaning of Imam, refer to the question "What does the definition of Imam Literally and technically?". [11] . Tafsir Namuna, Makarem Shirazi, Nasser, vol: 1 p: 440. [12] . Al-Baqarah: 124. [13] . Usul Kafi/Kulaini/vol. 1/p. 175." قَالَ سَمِعْتُ أَبَا عَبْدِ اللَّهِ ع يَقُولُ‏ إِنَّ اللَّهَ تَبَارَكَ وَ تَعَالَى اتَّخَذَ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَبْداً قَبْلَ أَنْ يَتَّخِذَهُ نَبِيّاً وَ إِنَّ اللَّهَ اتَّخَذَهُ نَبِيّاً قَبْلَ أَنْ يَتَّخِذَهُ رَسُولًا وَ إِنَّ اللَّهَ اتَّخَذَهُ رَسُولًا قَبْلَ أَنْ يَتَّخِذَهُ خَلِيلًا وَ إِنَّ اللَّهَ اتَّخَذَهُ خَلِيلًا قَبْلَ أَنْ يَجْعَلَهُ إِمَاماً فَلَمَّا جَمَعَ لَهُ الْأَشْيَاءَ قَالَ‏ إِنِّي جاعِلُكَ لِلنَّاسِ إِماماً قَالَ فَمِنْ عِظَمِهَا فِي عَيْنِ إِبْرَاهِيمَ قَالَ‏ وَ مِنْ ذُرِّيَّتِي قالَ لا يَنالُ عَهْدِي الظَّالِمِينَ‏ قَالَ لَا يَكُونُ السَّفِيهُ إِمَامَ التَّقِيِّ"
  9. Taqavi

    Imamat

    What is the difference between the Holy Prophet (s) and the infallible Imams (a)? The duty of the messengers of God is to receive the Sharia from God and propagate and preserve it, and prophets' successors are their successor in the Sharia among prophets' ummah, so the difference between the successor and the messenger is that the messenger receives the Sharia from God directly and the successor receives the Sharia from the prophet and as long as the Messenger's successor is among the Ummah, that Sharia also remains intact through that successor. Therefore, it is mentioned in a narration from the Prophet(s), O Ali, I am the one who gives warning, and you are the guide in this matter.[1] In another narration, Sadir says: I said to Imam Sadiq (a): There are some people who believe that you are deities and they provide evidence for it from the Qur'an. He said: O Sadir! My ears, my eyes, my body, my blood and my hair hate these people, and God hates them, they are not in my religion, nor in the religion of my fathers. I said: There are other people who say: You are the messengers of God. He said: O Sadir! My ears, my eyes, my hair, my body, my flesh and my blood hate them, God and His Messenger hate them, they are not in my religion, nor in the religion of my fathers. I swear to God that on the Day of Resurrection, God will not bring me and them together except that He is angry with them. I said: So, what are you? He said: We are the treasurers of God's knowledge, we are the interpreters of God's orders, we are innocent and pure people, God Almighty has commanded people to obey us and forbade people from disobeying us. We are the clear proof of God over everything under the sky and on the earth. [2] In this narration, the Imam denies the prophecy for himself, and explains difference between the Imams and the Prophet is that they are the interpreters of the divine command, which God has made their obedience like the prophet's obedience, obligatory. So, since they are the interpreters of the divine order, they do not receive a new religion, that's why prophetic revelation is not revealed to them[3], but they are in contact with the angels, as Imam Baqir (a) said in a narration, Imam is the one who hears the voice of angels. [4] [1] . Bihar Al-Anwar / Al-Allamah Al-Majlisi/ vol. 35/ p: 400. «أَنَا الْمُنْذِرُ وَ أَنْتَ يَا عَلِيُّ الْهَادِي إِلَى أَمْرِي‏» [2] . Usul Kafi/Kulaini/vol: 1/p: 269. «عن سَدِيرٍ قَالَ: قُلْتُ لِأَبِي عَبْدِ اللَّهِ ع إِنَّ قَوْماً يَزْعُمُونَ أَنَّكُمْ آلِهَةٌ......» [3] . Prophetic revelation is a sign of prophecy and it is mentioned more than seventy times in the Quran. Ma’rifat Qur’ani / Marafat, Sheikh Mohammad Hadi / Vol: 1 P: 22. [4] . Usul Kafi/Kulaini/vol: 1/p: 176. «.... قُلْتُ الْإِمَامُ مَا مَنْزِلَتُهُ قَالَ يَسْمَعُ الصَّوْتَ .....
  10. Taqavi

    Imamat

    What are the duties of the imam? It can be said that the imam has two basic duties. The first duty is the political government and the leadership of the society, the Imam, like the Prophet (a.s.), has the duty to manage the Islamic society, which includes political, judicial, and military affairs, of course, when this position of the Ahl al-Bayt (a.s.) is at their disposal, Therefore, when this position was usurped, lady Fatemah (a.s.) said in her sermon: If the caliphate and the administration of the society were in the hands of Ali (a.s.), if the people deviated from the right path, he would gently guide them to the right path. and a government would be formed in which there would be no fatigue and suffering;[1] Therefore, ruling over society and managing it is one of the virtues of Imamate. The second duty is religious authority, just as the Prophet (s) used to answer the doubts about Islam and explained the rules of religion and interpretation of the Qur'an and were the authority of the people in these matters, the Imam also has such a position and duty; the Prophet (s), himself said that, O Ali, you are my guardian and successor, just as Aaron was the guardian of Moses.[2] And in another narration, the prophet said: 'I am the city of knowledge and 'Ali is its gate'[3], that means, after me, the one who has the duty of guiding the people and has the scientific authority, is Ali bin Abi Talib (a.s.). So, one of the duties of the Imam is Safeguarding religion, answering doubts, stating rulings, interpreting the Qur'an and guiding people. Therefore, in Nahj al-Balagha, Imam Ali (a.s.) explains the Imam's duties as follows: "Indeed, there is nothing obligatory on the Imam except what God commands, and that is preaching to the people, trying to give advice and benevolence, establishing the Sunnah of the Prophet(s), imposing divine limits on criminals, delivering Bait Al-Mal's to the people."[4] [1] . Balaghat al-Nisa', vol. 1, p. 23, Abi Tahir Ibn Tayfour. [2] . Usul Kafi/Kulaini/vol. 8/p. 107. " أَنْتَ مِنِّي بِمَنْزِلَةِ هَارُونَ مِنْ مُوسَى إِلَّا أَنَّهُ لَا نَبِيَّ بَعْدِي"‏ [3] . Uyun Akhbar al-Reza/Vol.2/p.66. "أَنَا مَدِينَةُ الْعِلْمِ‏ وَ عَلِيٌّ بَابُهَ" [4] . Nahjul Balaghah, Sermon 105.
  11. Taqavi

    Imamat

    What are the Characteristics of the Imam? the twelve Imams (a.s.) have special characteristics that distinguish them from other people. These characteristics are fully expressed in the narration of Imam Ridha’ (a.s.)[1] therefore the scholars have mentioned to some of them: 1. Infallibility: The Imam, like the Prophet (S), is completely away from mistakes, forgetfulness, and intentional wrongdoing. He is, in fact, infallible; otherwise, Allah’s purpose of guiding humans and introducing the true path toward perfection would remain incomplete and His Mercy would not be accomplished.[2] 2. Knowledge: The Imam must be aware of what is necessary for Imamate, that is, he must know the teachings and rulings of the religion completely, so that he can inform the people about their religion and their religious duties and arbitrate in disputes between them.[3] 3. Courage: The third quality of the Imam is courage, which he needs in removing seditions and suppressing falsehood, because without having the quality of courage, he will not be able to fulfill the duties of the Imamate.[4] 4. The superiority of Imam: The Imam is a unique person in his own age; no one is like him, nor can anyone reach his position.[5] 5. Avoiding physical and mental defects: In general, the Imam must be free from any physical or mental defects; Among the physical attributes of the imam, is being free from diseases and defects that disgust people; For example, the Imam (a.s.) never suffers from diseases such as leprosy and vitiligo. Also, the Imam (a.s.) must be free from mental defects and unpleasant temperaments, such as ignorance, madness and jealousy. Because there is no doubt that despite such defects, the Imam will be discredited in the eyes of the people and will lose his status in the eyes of his followers.[6] 6. Miracle: Some theologians consider the Imam's ability to perform miracles, is one of his attributes and have said: It may be necessary for the Imam to perform miracles to prove his Imamate, which is a divine position. [7] [1] . (Usul Kafi/Kulaini/vol. 1/p. 200) "كُنَّا مَعَ الرِّضَا ع بِمَرْوَ فَاجْتَمَعْنَا فِي الْجَامِعِ يَوْمَ الْجُمُعَةِ فِي بَدْءِ مَقْدَمِنَا فَأَدَارُوا أَمْرَ الْإِمَامَةِ وَ ذَكَرُوا كَثْرَةَ اخْتِلَافِ النَّاسِ فِيهَا فَدَخَلْتُ عَلَى سَيِّدِي....." [2] . Qushji, Fadel, Sharh Tajaryd al-Iaetiqadi, p. 367. [3] . Tusi, Khawaja Nasir al-Din, Talkhees al-Muhallas, p. 430. [4] . Ibid. [5] . Alama Hilli, Hassan bin Yusuf, Kashf Al-Murad, vol. 1, p. 366. [6] . Fadel, Miqdad bin Abdullah, Irshad al-Talibeen, pp. 325-375. [7] . Tusi, Khawaja Nasir al-Din, Talkhees al-Muhallas, p. 431 - Bahrani, Ibn Maitham, Qawa’i
  12. Taqavi

    Imamat

    What does the definition of Imam Literally and technically? Imam is an Arabic word that means leader and master.[1] Raghib al-Isfahani writes about this word: "imam is someone who is imitated, whether it is a person who is imitated by his words and actions, or a book or something else, whether this imitation is right or wrong"[2]. In al- Majmae al-Bahrayn also, imam means the leader and the one who is followed by people.[3] technically, it means the religious leader over everyone, so Theologians have defined Imam in two ways; Some definitions are general and include prophet as well; for example, it has been defined as the "general leader in religious and worldly issues".[4] The second definitions are those which regard Imam as the successer of the Prophet (s) in religious affairs and consider following Imam obligatory.[5] It should be noted that this word has been used 12 times in the Qur'an and in all these cases it has been used in its literal meaning like: "The day We shall summon every group of people with their Imam".[6] In Shia, the term Imam is used for the 12 infallible Imams who are the successors of the prophet and if it is used for other people (such as Imam Khomeini, Imam Khoei, etc.), it means supervisor and leader in its literal meaning. [1] . Ibn Manzur, Lisan al-Arab, vol. 12, p. 24. [2] . Abu Al-Qasim Hussein bin Muhammad, Ragheb Isfahani, mufradat alfaz alquran fi gharayb alquran, p, 87. « و الإِمام: المؤتمّ به، إنسانا كأن يقتدى بقوله أو فعله، أو كتابا، أو غير ذلك محقّا كان أو مبطلا، و جمعه: أئمة» [3] . Fakhruddin Torihi; al- Majmae al-Bahrayn, vol. 6, p. 10:" قوله: إِنِّي جاعِلُكَ لِلنَّاسِ‏ إِماماً أي يأتم بك الناس فيتبعونك و يأخذون عنك، لأن الناس‏ يَأُمُّونَ‏ أفعاله أي يقصدونها فيتبعونها."- Khalil bin Ahmed Farahidi; Al Ain, vol. 8, p. 426:" كل من اقتدي به، و قدم في الأمور فهو إمام" [4] . Sayyid al-Sharif, al-Ta'rifat, p.35; Bahrani, Qawa'id al-maram, p.174; Fadil al-Miqdad, Irshad al-talibin, p.325; Taftazani, Sharh al-maqasid, vol.5, p.234; Sayyid al-Sharif, Sharh al-mawaqif, vol.8, p.345 [5] . Hilli, al-Bab al-hadi 'ashar, p.66; Fadil al-Miqdad, Irshad al-talibin, p.325-326; Fadil al-Miqdad, al-Lawami' al-ilahiyya, p.319-320; Sayyid al-Sharif, Sharh al-mawaqif, vol.8, p.345; Amidi, Abkar al-afkar, vol.3, p.416; Taftazani, Sharh al-maqasid, vol.5, p.234. [6] . Al-Isra: 71, " "يَوْمَ نَدْعُو كُلَّ أُنَاسٍ بِإِمَامِهِم
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